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about cyme:

CYME’s Power Systems Analysis Framework

(PSAF) is a comprehensive suite of integrated

software programs that perform the simulations and

analyses of transmission or industrial electrical

systems as needed by the electrical engineers.

A wide selection of network equipment and

controllers is supported by a built-in database that

contains industry standard equipment

characteristics. Every type of equipment features

more than one modeling possibility depending on the

purpose and extent of the simulation to be


PSAF offers both graphical and tabular data entry

modes, user-preferred single-line diagram drawing

options and sophisticated facilities for reporting,

plotting and customizing the simulation reports.

Deploying PSAF brings significant advantages in

performing the planning, design and problem-solving

activities related to the assessment, improvement

and maintenance of electrical power systems.

PSAF is directly applicable to both utilitytype

and industrial three-phase electric

power systems.

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Transmission & Industrial System Analysis - PSAF

- Power flow for normal operating conditions and

“what-if’ scenarios.

- Short circuit calculations and protection settings.

- Breaker ratings.

- Arc flash hazard calculations.

- Optimal power flow.

- Voltage stability/Modal analysis.

- Harmonic analysis.

- Transient stability under normal operating

conditions such as transient motor starting and

load transfer.

- System dynamics under abnormal operating

conditions such as bus fault and line tripping.

- Transmission lines parameters calculations in

sequence or phase domain, with modal analysis

and frequency-dependence modeling capability.

-          Underground cable parameters calculations.

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Features and Capabilities

Dedicated to power flow analysis in three-phase electric power

networks, it is equipped with powerful analytical options and

alternative solution techniques.

CYMFLOW utilizes state of the art sparse matrix/vector methods

and multiple solution algorithms: full Newton-Raphson, fast

Decoupled (with or without constraints), and Gauss-Seidel.

Some of the CYMFLOW capabilities are:

• Analyze networks with thousands of buses and branches.

• Multiple swing buses allowed.

• Automatic swing bus selection for isolated subsystems.

• Simultaneous solution for islanded networks.

• Switchable shunt element.

• Generalized load modeling, including constant power,

impedance and current.

• Representation and control of DC lines.

• Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS).

• Modeling and representation of FACTS devices (UPFC and


• Transformer inrush currents.

• Color coding on the network one-line diagram of overloaded

equipment and buses with voltage violations.

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CYM-AC Contingency

The AC CONTINGENCY operates in conjunction with CYMFLOW, for

power flow related contingency analysis. The analytical approach

used is the same as CYMFLOW; i.e. the contingency analysis is

performed using full AC power flow solutions (no DC

approximations). The module features the sequential solution of

all contingencies in a single run.

The contingency module is structured so that an unlimited

number of “what-if” scenarios can be included in a given

contingency study. All contingency-related system modifications

refer to the base case network single outages and/or multiple

outages/modifications can be concurrently defined at will to

represent an adverse contingency analysis scenario such as:

• Modify loads globally, individually or by zone.

• Modify generation globally, individually or by zone.

• Connection and disconnection of branches.

• Shunt modification.

• Addition and removal of induction and synchronous motors.

• Connection and disconnection of buses.

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CYM-Motor Start

The CYM-Motor Start Analysis Module operates in conjunction with

CYMFLOW and is dedicated to simulating the effects of induction

and synchronous motor starting in three-phase electric power

systems. This module is a reliable and easy to use tool for

assessing system voltage dips and acceleration times of induction

motors, using a variety of starting methods.

• Induction motor starting.

• Synchronous motor starting.

• Ten starting methods supported, including soft motor start,

VFD, auto transformer, etc.

• Detailed mechanical load model based on manufacturer data

curves or with the equation of load torque versus speed.

• In the absence of detailed information, the module includes

support functions for deducing the induction motor equivalent

circuit for single rotor, double rotor or deep bar rotor induction


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CYMFLOW - Power Flow Analysis

Electrical Equipment

Parameter Estimation

PSAF is capable of suggesting typical data for the

system equipment. These estimating functions

account for a wide array of industry

manufacturing practices, and respect the

recommendations outlined in both North American

and International calculating guidelines. This

capability is very useful when detailed information

about lines or cables is not available.

Transmission line models are defined by their

geometrical line configurations. Transposed and/

or full three-phase un-transposed models

including frequency dependency are supported for

single or double circuit lines, with solid or tubular

conductors, multiple conductors per phase and

multiple neutral wires (segmented or not).

Underground cable constants are calculated

single and/or three-core cables with either sheath

or ground return.

To simulate fault conditions in three-phase electric power

systems. User-friendly data entry, a multitude of reports and

flexibility in applying all industry-accepted standards are features

that make CYMFAULT an indispensable tool for these very

common and important system studies.

CYMFAULT adheres to North American ANSI C37.5, ANSI

C37.010, ANSI C37.13 and International IEC-60909 guidelines. It

also supports conventional short-circuit studies without reference

to any particular standards.

• Series faults (one-phase open, two-phase open and threephase

series unbalance).

• Separate network reduction for ANSI X/R ratios.

• Arcing faults through user-defined fault impedance.

• Mutual coupling in zero sequence.

• Interrupting device adequacy evaluation.

• Automated sliding fault option on a transmission line and/or


• System-wide voltage, current and machine contribution

reports (phase and sequence values).

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ANSI Short-Circuit Studies

CYMFAULT adheres to North American ANSI C37.5, ANSI

C37.010, ANSI C37.13 for all duty types that are of interest to

industrial fault studies. Duty types supported include: time

delayed, contact parting, closing / latching, low voltage circuit


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IEC Short-Circuit Studies

CYMFAULT adheres to the international IEC-60909 guidelines and

supports all four types of fault currents that are of interest to

industrial fault studies. Duty types supported include: initial

short-circuit current (I"k), maximum asymmetrical fault or peak

current (Ip), breaking fault current (Ib), steady state fault

current (Ik).

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CYMFAULT includes an interface module to our Protective Device

Coordination Program CYMTCC. This interface provides

CYMFAULT users with full access to the complete library of over

5000 protective devices available in the CYMTCC program.

The user simply has to define the coordination path of the feeder

on the one-line diagram of PSAF and export to CYMTCC.

CYMTCC will automatically generate the Device Time / Current

curves for any device setting adjustments along with the selected

feeder one-line diagram.

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CYMBREAK - Breaker Ratings

CYMBREAK checks the validity of the current breaker size, and is

designed to execute the appropriate simulation for high, medium

or low voltage circuit breaker according to either ANSI or IEC


The CYMBREAK engine allows the user to specify the breaker with

information such as rated voltage, short circuit currents,

temperature, etc. It is also possible to specify the breaker

configuration arrangement such as 2, 1½, ring, etc. Then it

determines if it is correctly sized in a steady state context or

during a short circuit. Based on the breaker configuration,

simulations are automatically performed on the worst system

arrangement for each performed check.

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Arc Flash Hazard

This module is primarily designed to analyze and promote the

electrical safety for employees working on or near electrical


It computes the necessary parameters required to assess the risk

level and adopt the adequate safety procedures, and complies

with industry recognized standards and methods for performing

ARC Flash Hazard calculations namely: the Electrical Safety

Requirements for Employee Workplaces (NFPA-70E-2004) and

the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE-1584-


The module facilitates the calculation of arc flash hazards in

different types of equipment in various power systems.

The program generates reports a variety of reports including

labels that can be printed directly on ARC Flash Hazard

weatherproof warning stickers.

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CYMFAULT - Fault Analysis (ANSI & IEC)

Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS)

CYMSTAB now includes extensive modeling capability of Wind

Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) dynamics. The advanced

solution algorithms provide the user with the necessary tools to

carry out power system studies comprising wind farm

installations. Wind-turbine generation systems supported


• WECS-IG, for induction generators directly coupled with the

AC grid.

• WECS-HVDC, for induction generators connected to the AC

grid through a Voltage-Source Converter (VSC) DC link.

• WECS-DFIG, for doubly fed induction generators, featuring

not only a direct stator connection to the AC grid but, also, a

VSC-based DC link rotor energy recovery system, for variable

turbine speed operation.

• Wind modeling, accounting for “cut-in” and “cut-off”


• Two-mass drive train turbine-generator shaft model.

• Blade pitch control.

CYMSTAB is the PSAF simulation module used to simulate

electromechanical transients in three-phase electric power

systems. It features an extensive library of equipment and

controller models, the capability to include user-defined controls,

a very flexible user-interface and powerful graphics.

CYMSTAB utilizes the simultaneous implicit trapezoidal

integration solution technique for network, machine and

controller equations. The program supports the capability to test

the step response of controllers and User Defined Modeling

(UDM) for system equipment and controllers.

CYMSTAB features a large library of pre-defined models for

network equipment and control systems that includes:

• Turbo and salient pole generators.

• IEEE excitation systems including saturation modeling.

• Power system stabilizers.

• Governor models comprising hydraulic, thermal, diesel, and

gas turbines.

• Static Var compensators.

• Under-voltage, under-frequency and frequency droop relays.

• Power swing and impedance relays.

• Induction motor models with frequency dependent modeling.

Some of the analytical capabilities of CYMSTAB are:

• LLL, L-G, LL and LL-G fault application and removal.

• Line switching and line re-closing.

• Single pole re-closing including line charging effects.

• Load shedding and load increase; generation shedding.

• Disconnection of lines, cables and transformers.

• Direct on-line or assisted induction motor starting and

stopping; synchronous motor starting.

• Possibility to vary the integration step during the simulation.

• Frequency-dependent modeling.

• Networks with multiple frequencies.

• HVDC modeling.

• Generalized load modeling at individual bus bars or

throughout the system.

• Series capacitors and controls.

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CYMSTAB - Transient Stability Analysis

Robust User Defined Modeling

In addition to its built-in library, the program

includes a comprehensive Library of User-Defined

excitation systems, governors and stabilizers.

Virtually any schematic diagram of Laplacedomain

transfer functions can be created using

our User-Defined Modeling functionality. With

UDM it is also possible to perform manoeuvres

(like stopping a motor) based on network

conditions, rather than at fixed times.

The PSAF User Defined Modeling functionality is

a robust, field-proven capability with which the

engineer can define the components of the

network and their functions with the optimum

precision that yields to more accurate simulation


CYMVSTAB performs the voltage security assessment of power

systems. In planning and operating today’s stressed power

systems, the ability to maintain voltage stability has become a

growing concern. CYMVSTAB is designed to meet this challenge

by assessing the ability of the power system to maintain stable

voltages under different contingencies and loading conditions.

Power system voltage instability is related to the lack of reactive

power resources in the network. This is very similar to frequency

instability in transient stability studies for systems that do not

have sufficient spinning reserve.

Many aspects of voltage stability problems can be effectively

analyzed with the Steady state or Static Power Flow based

domain for a specified operating condition of the power system.

CYMVSTAB offers the user the same common format as our

Power Flow Program CYMFLOW for entering the network data,

defining the study parameters, report options and solving the


The program assesses the voltage stability of a network by

means of the two most common static voltage stability analysis


• P-V Analysis (P-V Curves)

• V-Q Analysis (V-Q Curves)

All curves of monitored variables can be exported to CYMVIEW,

which is capable of managing the outputs of different modules

and storing the results for any number of simulations generated


Modal Analysis

In addition to the voltage stability analysis techniques, there is a

need for analytical tools capable of predicting voltage collapse in

complex networks, accurately quantifying stability margins,

power transfer limits, identifying voltage-weak points and areas

susceptible to voltage instability.

The voltage stability module CYMVSTAB can identify the

contributing factors and sensitivities which in turn provide insight

into system characteristics that are key elements for the

development of remedial actions in the network.

CYMVSTAB has the unique feature that for both PV and VQ

approaches, the modal analysis is applied at each operating point

to determine the voltage stability critical areas by identifying the

ten buses contributing most to each identified mode of


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CYMVSTAB - Voltage Stability Analysis CYMHARMO - Harmonic Analysis

CYMHARMO is designed to perform harmonic penetration

analysis in electric power systems. It features both single phase

and full three-phase modeling capabilities. It can flexibly and

easily be applied to utility-type grids, industrial power systems

and distribution feeders of any configuration.

CYMHARMO utilizes state of the art sparse matrix/vector

methods with a three-phase nodal admittance network matrix


The program obtains from CYMFLOW the fundamental frequency

current and voltage system profile for harmonic distortion

calculations and waveform display.

• Phase or sequence analysis.

• Driving point and transfer point frequency scanning analysis.

• Voltage and current harmonic distortion.

• Calculation of telephonic indices (TIF, IT, etc.).

• Sensitivity analysis.

• System equivalence.

• Noise-to-ground analysis.

• Inductive coordination analysis.

• Communication interference analysis with slanted-exposure

power circuits.

• Harmonic cancellation analysis.

• System detuning analysis.

• Capacitor stress analysis.

• Skin effect modeling. نسخه دمو این برنامه بدون کرک


CYMHARMO includes a capacitor rating module to perform the

stress analysis of all power capacitors installed in the network,

including those incorporated in filters. The analysis reports the

harmonic currents and voltages of each capacitor as well as the

total reactive power, RMS current, RMS voltage and peak

voltage. These quantities will be compared to user-defined limits

and any capacitor that violates any of those limits will be

reported and highlighted on the network one-line diagram.

CYMOPF allows the user to engage in advanced system planning

studies to optimize system performance, examine cost-efficient

operational planning alternatives, articulate system control

strategies and rationalize equipment utilization, resulting in

better overall system asset management.

CYMOPF calculates the “best possible” values for “higher level

set points” considering a set of user-specified objective

functions and a number of constraints. In this way, it adds

intelligence and, consequently, improves efficiency and

throughput of power system studies significantly.

CYMOPF relies on robust barrier-method based nonlinear

optimization techniques that permit fully coupled optimization,

with the entire set of system control variables, including

generation schedules, transformer taps, phase shifter settings,

etc. System equipment constraints are observed, in particular

bus voltages and line flows.

CYMOPF includes infeasibility handling through automatic

relaxation of immediate binding constraints and comprehensive

constraint ranking severity indicators for cases that exhibit

convergence difficulty.

CYMOPF is aptly suited in solving many problems typically found

in today’s less-regulated power markets :

• Scheduling of ancillary services for reactive power and active


• Development of system reference scenarios.

• Voltage collapse analysis.

• Transfer capability investigation.

• Location based marginal cost assessment.

• Implicit penalty function consideration.

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CYMOPF - Optimal Power Flow Analysis

CYMVIEW, common to all CYME simulation modules, generates

any kind of charts. CYMVIEW is capable of managing the

outputs of the various CYME software modules:

• Real-time plotting of variables specified in user-defined

models (bar charts, curves, time waveform).

• Complete system-wide tabular reports generated with

complete echo of the data used for the simulation.

• R-X plots, sensitivity analysis plots.

• Equipotential contours in 2D and 3D.

• Capability to compare results from different simulations.

• Algebraic manipulation of plots and variables during


• Possibility to plot multiple results on the same graph.

• Unlimited number of graphs.

• Capability to customize units, labels and plots appearances.

• Can be exported to MS Excel or to HTML format.

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CYMVIEW - Simulation Results

PSAF for

Industrial Power Systems

CYME offers a comprehensive suite of power

engineering applications well adapted for

industrial power systems with 250 buses or less.

PSAF features applications for the most common

studies and assessments involved in the design

and maintenance of power systems in industries.

Includes load flow, short-circuit, motor starting

analysis, and protective device coordination. With

more specialized tools you can perform harmonic

analysis (with full 3-phase modeling capacity) and

transient stability studies. The latter comprises

user-defined modeling capabilities allowing for

the creation of your own models for equipment,

controls, relays or special functions.

CYMTCC addresses Time Over-Current protection for Industrial,

Commercial and Distribution Power systems. The program

comes with an extensive database of over 5000 protective

devices that are easily called to produce Time-Current curve

plots and device settings reports. It also features a unique

Coordination wizard to suggest protective device settings/

adjustments and ratings. CYMTCC features a direct interface to

PSAF to verify the coordination of protective devices. It can also

be used to provide the device opening times that are used in the

Arc Flash Hazard simulation module of PSAF.

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CYMTCC - Protective Device Coordination

CYMGRD is CYME’s substation grounding grid design and

analysis module specially designed to help engineers optimize

the design of new grids and reinforce existing grids, of any

shape, by virtue of easy to use, built-in danger point evaluation

facilities . The program conforms to IEEE Std. 80-2000, Std. 81-

1983 and Std. 837-2002. The use of CYMGRD allows for the

rapid analysis of various design alternatives to choose an

economical solution for any particular installation. User-friendly

data entry, efficient analysis algorithms and powerful graphical

facilities render CYMGRD an efficient tool that helps the

engineer arrive at technically sound and economical designs.

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CYMGRD - Substation Grounding

The PSAF simulation modules are easy to use,

reliable and powerful with the most advanced

industry-proven modeling and algorithmic solution

techniques for the most demanding engineering


PSAF offers a highly interactive graphical interface

that makes it easy to draw the network one-line

diagram on the screen and define the parameters

of its components. At any time, you may display

and edit the data pertinent to any component. You

may even have the one-line diagram drawn

automatically for you as you connect components


PSAF also comprises cable and equipment

estimation programs to further enhance the

process of building a consistent network diagram

upon which realistic and reliable system studies

can be performed.

With the PSAF sophisticated facilities for reporting

and plotting, you can easily select the variables

you need and customize your simulation reports as

required. You may design custom reports by

selecting items from a menu. Undesirable load

flow conditions such as overloads and under/overvoltages

may be reported.

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Graphical and Reporting


© Copyright CYME International, April 2006

CYME’s Electrical Analysis Software Solutions are readily available for customers’

immediate use in planning and engineering applications.

CYME engineers can also assist you in the resolution of emerging, specialized and

non-routine problems, and provide more specialized assistance and study services.

Our engineering staff is at a high degree of skill and their knowledge covers almost

every area of power system analysis. Backed by extensive experience in systems’

planning, design and operation, they provide a range of options in terms of

specialization, experience and know-how.

Specialized and sophisticated system studies to deal with new and emerging

problems in the energy sector.

• Minimizing cost and maximizing profit by operating equipment near, at, or beyond

their design limits.

• Dealing with modern customer equipment sensitive to system disturbances.

• Rationalization of cost by system planning and operation optimization.

• Assessment of system performance, its ability to meet regulation requirements,

and measures for its enhancement.

• Conduction of technical studies for system expansion and/or refurbishment

purposes and prepare equipment specifications for these purposes.

• Conduction of postmortem analyses to establish failure causes and provision of

remedial actions.

• Preparation of technical specifications for tendering purposes and reviewing


• Provision of third party opinions in disputed matters.

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System problems with increasing importance need special analytical

studies in the following areas:

• Voltage sags and swells.

• Harmonics levels and their control.

• Flicker problems and their mitigation.

• Integration of distributed generation in power systems.

• Insulation coordination.

• Arc flash regulations.

• Grounding systems and ground potential rise.

• Voltage control and VAR flow optimization.

• System reliability and outage analysis.

• Design of protection systems and coordination of relay settings for optimum

selectivity and prompt isolation of faulty sections.






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